The ICB is an updated technological hub for the research and development of small molecules as well as biotechnological processes. In the pharmaceutical field, the activities dedicated to analysis, synthesis and biological evaluation of small bioactive organic molecules are able to support studies of lead compounds and preclinical development of lipids, natural products, peptides, and biomarkers for oncology, immunology, and neuroscience. In this frame, an emerging point of excellence is the research of vaccine adjuvants by the activation of the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and small molecules and glyco-conjugates. The Institute makes available a collection of molecules and extracts, and a database with information on molecules discovered in our laboratories. The ICB also harbors impactful research on the endocannabinoid signaling system and on the pharmacological potential of cannabis. In the field of biotechnology the Institute investigates the development and implementation of processes based on extremophilic and whole-cell enzymes for the biological mitigation of CO2 and for the production of biofuels, hydrogen, food ingredients, functional and/or bioactive compounds from the conversion of natural matrices and agro-food residues.